|Title||Extracellular vesicles from cod (Gadus morhua L.) mucus contain innate immune factors and deiminated protein cargo.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Magnadottir, B, Kraev, I, Gudmundsdottir, S, Dodds, AW, Lange, S|
|Journal||Developmental & Comparative Immunology|
Extracellular vesicles are released from cells and participate in cell communication via transfer of protein and genetic cargo derived from the parent cells. EVs play roles in normal physiology and immunity and are also linked to various pathological processes. Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are phylogenetically conserved enzymes with physiological and pathophysiological roles. PADs cause post-translational protein deimination, resulting in structural and, in some cases, functional changes in target proteins and are also linked to EV biogenesis. This study describes for the first time EVs isolated from cod mucosa. Mucosal EVs were characterised by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and EV-specific surface markers. Cod mucosal EVs were found to carry PAD, complement component C3 and C-reactive proteins. C3 was found to be deiminated in both whole mucus and mucosal EVs, with some differences, and further 6 deiminated immune and cytoskeletal proteins were identified in EVs by LC-MS/MS analysis. As mucosal surfaces of teleost fish reflect human mucosal surfaces, these findings may provide useful insights into roles of EVs in mucosal immunity throughout phylogeny.